In the last decade in Mexico and other developing countries, soil preparation is the agricultural activity that represents the highest costs per unit of production, due to factors such as lack of appropriate equipment, excessive tillage, high consumption of fossil fuel, lack of knowledge and training for the adequate soil management, among others.
The purpose of this research was to develop a vertical tillage technology that allows primary soil preparation without investment and reduces fuel consumption and effective operating time, improves labor quality and conserves soil and water resources. For this, a chisel plow prototype was developed based on four vertical tillage parameters: (1. Working depth 2. Number of bodies 3. Spacing between chisels 4. Use of wings or sweepers). These parameters determined the criteria and dimensions of the prototype for its development in design parameters such as spacing, position, angle of attack and depth of work.
The performance evaluation of the prototype was compared with the disc plow; an implement that served as a witness as it was the most widely used technology. The standardized test method was used by the National Center for Standardization of Agricultural Machinery "CENEMA". The results obtained show a prototype plow with five chisels mounted on a double platform frame. The front platform is used for the coupling of three shallow chisels and the rear one, for the coupling of two deep chisels with wings. The implement adjusts for two working depths 0.30 and 0.40 meters and two working widths 1.80 m and 2.40 m respectively. The performance evaluation showed that vertical tillage with the chisel plow prototype in its two treatments showed an average saving of more than 45% in the fuel consumption variable and 53% in the effective working time compared to conventional tillage used with a disc plow. In terms of quality of work, vertical tillage shows high performance in soil disturbance, exceeding up to 65% of the work done by conventional tillage. Finally, it is concluded that the proposed technology should be used as technological innovation and replace the conventional disk plow technology, given its technological, economic and environmental advantages.
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Copyright (c) 2022 M.A. Reynolds Chávez, A. Capetillo Burela, M. Cadena Zapata, J.A. López López, R. Zetina Lezama