Biofumigation for the Control of Vegetables Soilborne Pathogens in Some non-Temperate Climate Countries


Methyl bromide
Montreal Protocol
soilborne pathogens
Developing (A5) countries

How to Cite

Besri M. Biofumigation for the Control of Vegetables Soilborne Pathogens in Some non-Temperate Climate Countries. Glob. J. Agric. Innov. Res. Dev [Internet]. 2021 Nov. 15 [cited 2022 Nov. 27];8:140-52. Available from:


Soil-borne pathogens (SBPs) significantly reduce the yield and quality of crops worldwide. In the past, their control was principally accomplished by using soil fumigants such as methyl bromide (MB). However, this fumigant which is a powerful ozone-depleting substance, has completely been phased out under the Montreal Protocol (MP). New chemicals and non-chemical alternatives to MB, including biofumigation, have been actively researched, developed, and commercially adopted worldwide. This review seeks to provide the status of biofumigation for the control of SBPs in some non-temperate climate zones referred to in this paper as Article 5 countries or developing countries according to the Montreal Protocol (MP) classification. The review will first define “the non-temperate climate zone,” list the countries belonging to this zone, focus on the role and importance of the MP in phasing-out MB, and in searching and commercially adopting alternatives including biofumigation to this fumigant. It also describes the biofumigation techniques reported and used, reports its efficacy/inefficacy to manage SBPs in some non-climate temperate countries, insists on the place it must have in an IPM program to increase its efficacy, and finally, lists the collaboration and the research needed to further develop and commercially adopt this technology in non-temperate climate countries.


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